Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, which for a time ruled from Lahore.
The word Punjab was formally introduced in the early 17th century CE as an elision of the Persian words panj (five) and āb (water), thus meaning the (land of) five rivers, similar in meaning to the Greek name for the region.
The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River and eventually into the Arabian Sea.
Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan's Punjab province. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilisation.
), is the most populous of the four provinces of Pakistan.
Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area after Balochistan, and is Pakistan's most populous province with an estimated population of 101,391,000 as of 2015.
It is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Sindh, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, as well as the regions of Islamabad Capital Territory and Azad Kashmir.
It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan, and Jammu and Kashmir.
The capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a cultural centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based.
In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab.